Goldman sees its profits fall

first_img KCS-content Goldman sees its profits fall Show Comments ▼ More From Our Partners Brave 7-Year-old Boy Swims an Hour to Rescue His Dad and Little Sistergoodnewsnetwork.orgSupermodel Anne Vyalitsyna claims income drop, pushes for child supportnypost.comAstounding Fossil Discovery in California After Man Looks Closelygoodnewsnetwork.orgFlorida woman allegedly crashes children’s birthday party, rapes teennypost.comPolice Capture Elusive Tiger Poacher After 20 Years of Pursuing the Huntergoodnewsnetwork.orgInside Ashton Kutcher and Mila Kunis’ not-so-average farmhouse estatenypost.comNative American Tribe Gets Back Sacred Island Taken 160 Years Agogoodnewsnetwork.orgA ProPublica investigation has caused outrage in the U.S. this weekvaluewalk.comRussell Wilson, AOC among many voicing support for Naomi Osakacbsnews.com980-foot skyscraper sways in China, prompting panic and evacuationsnypost.com‘Neighbor from hell’ faces new charges after scaring off home buyersnypost.comMatt Gaetz swindled by ‘malicious actors’ in $155K boat sale boondogglenypost.comUK teen died on school trip after teachers allegedly refused her pleasnypost.comKiller drone ‘hunted down a human target’ without being told tonypost.comFeds seized 18 devices from Rudy Giuliani and his employees in April raidnypost.comBiden received funds from top Russia lobbyist before Nord Stream 2 giveawaynypost.comI blew off Adam Sandler 22 years ago — and it’s my biggest regretnypost.comMark Eaton, former NBA All-Star, dead at 64nypost.com US INVESTMENT bank Goldman Sachs said yesterday that net profit fell during the third quarter of this year after lower than expected trading volumes during the summer dragged on earnings.Goldman reported a net profit of $1.9bn (£1.2bn), or $2.98 per share, for the three months to 30 September, down more than 40 per cent on the previous year’s $3.19bn profit haul, or $5.25 per share. Net revenues were also down 28 per cent on the previous quarter to $8.9bn, the bank said.Revenues from the bank’s trading desks were $6.38bn, 36 per cent lower than a year earlier and three per cent lower than the previous quarter. But the fall in trading volume was offset by growth in the bank’s investment banking division, which saw revenues increase to $1.12bn, 24 per cent higher than a year earlier, on the back of a 40 per cent increase in revenues from equity and bond underwriting.Goldman also revealed it had put $3.8bn (£2.4bn) aside in the third quarter to cover employee pay and bonuses. For the year to date it has set aside $13.1bn to cover staff pay and bonuses, or £268,000 per employee. Overall, the staff pay and bonus pool is down 21 per cent from the $16.7bn set aside at this time last year.Chairman and chief executive Lloyd Blankfein said the bank’s results reflect solid performance.“While economic conditions continue to be challenging in a number of important markets, our focus is on helping our clients achieve their goals,” he said. Ad Unmute by Taboolaby TaboolaSponsored LinksSponsored LinksPromoted LinksPromoted LinksYou May LikeMisterStoryWoman Files For Divorce After Seeing This Photo – Can You See Why?MisterStoryUndoNoteabley25 Funny Notes Written By StrangersNoteableyUndoTotal PastThe Ingenious Reason There Are No Mosquitoes At Disney WorldTotal PastUndoMoneyPailShe Was A Star, Now She Works In ScottsdaleMoneyPailUndoSerendipity TimesInside Coco Chanel’s Eerily Abandoned Mansion Frozen In TimeSerendipity TimesUndoBrake For ItThe Most Worthless Cars Ever MadeBrake For ItUndoBetterBe20 Stunning Female AthletesBetterBeUndomoneycougar.comThis Proves The Osmonds Weren’t So Innocentmoneycougar.comUndoMagellan TimesThis Is Why The Roy Rogers Museum Has Been Closed For GoodMagellan TimesUndo Tags: NULLcenter_img Tuesday 19 October 2010 8:03 pm whatsapp whatsapp Sharelast_img read more

Caudan Development Ltd (CAUD.mu) Q32017 Interim Report

first_imgCaudan Development Ltd (CAUD.mu) listed on the Stock Exchange of Mauritius under the Property sector has released it’s 2017 interim results for the third quarter.For more information about Caudan Development Ltd (CAUD.mu) reports, abridged reports, interim earnings results and earnings presentations, visit the Caudan Development Ltd (CAUD.mu) company page on AfricanFinancials.Document: Caudan Development Ltd (CAUD.mu)  2017 interim results for the third quarter.Company ProfileCaudan Development Limited deals in the investment and development of real estate properties and provision of security services in Mauritius. The company also owns, promotes and develops Le Caudan Waterfront, which is a mixed commercial project on the waterfront of Port Louis. Apart from Le Caudan Waterfront, Caudan Development Limited rents out industrial buildings situated at Pailles, Riche Terre, and Albion Dock. The company also deals in the sale of alarm equipment and property protection services. Caudan Development Limited is listed on the Stock Exchange of Mauritius.last_img read more

Daily news from New Zealand – 14 October – Video

first_imgLATEST RUGBY WORLD MAGAZINE SUBSCRIPTION DEALS AUCKLAND, NEW ZEALAND – OCTOBER 14: Aaron Cruden of the All Blacks during a New Zealand All Blacks IRB Rugby World Cup 2011 team announcement at The Heritage Hotel on October 14, 2011 in Auckland, New Zealand. (Photo by Phil Walter/Getty Images) Aaron Cruden steps into the spotlightIn today’s RWC Daily we speak with New Zealand’s Aaron Cruden, Keven Mealamu and Stephen Donald ahead of Sunday’s semi-final between the hosts and Australia.last_img read more

Poolhouse O / Steven Vandenborre

first_img Poolhouse O / Steven Vandenborre ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/887180/poolhouse-o-steven-vandenborre Clipboard Houses “COPY” Poolhouse O / Steven VandenborreSave this projectSavePoolhouse O / Steven Vandenborre CopyAbout this officeSteven VandenborreOfficeFollowProductConcrete#TagsProjectsBuilt ProjectsSelected ProjectsResidential ArchitectureHousesBrugesBelgiumPublished on January 18, 2018Cite: “Poolhouse O / Steven Vandenborre” 18 Jan 2018. ArchDaily. Accessed 11 Jun 2021. ISSN 0719-8884Browse the CatalogAluminium CompositesTechnowoodHow to Design a Façade with AluProfile Vertical ProfilesSynthetics / AsphaltMitrexSolar RoofMetal PanelsAurubisCopper Alloy: Nordic RoyalPlumbingSanifloGreywater Pump – Sanifast®SWH190WoodLunawoodInterior ThermowoodMembranesEffisusAVCL Systems for FacadesSinksCosentinoBathroom Collection – Silestone® WashbasinsDoorsStudcoPocket Door Trims – CavKitWoodStructureCraftEngineering – Architectural & FreeformMetal PanelsRHEINZINKPanel Surface Finish – prePATINA-LineHanging LampsEureka LightingSuspended Lights – BloomMetallicsBaileyFacade Systems- I-Line Snap-On Feature ChannelMore products »Save世界上最受欢迎的建筑网站现已推出你的母语版本!想浏览ArchDaily中国吗?是否翻译成中文现有为你所在地区特制的网站?想浏览ArchDaily中国吗?Take me there »✖You’ve started following your first account!Did you know?You’ll now receive updates based on what you follow! Personalize your stream and start following your favorite authors, offices and users.Go to my stream 2013 Architects: Steven Vandenborre Area Area of this architecture project Photographs Year:  Photographs:  Tim Van de VeldeSave this picture!© Tim Van de VeldeSave this picture!Floor PlanText description provided by the architects. The project brings together a walled courtyard and a swimming pool. The living area is a glass box contained within a concrete garden pavilion. By making the poolhouse entirely out of glass, with minimal framed windows, both inside and outside seems to disappear. Natural light is entering the pavilion by creating enclosed gardens.Save this picture!© Tim Van de VeldeSave this picture!© Tim Van de VeldeThe overall atmosphere is a combination of rough and soft materials creating an intense, silent luxury the length of the pool allows you to experience swimming in a garden, under a building and in a building.The garden (designed by Alderik Heirman) is gently entering the building and results in a perfect marriage of nature and architecture.Save this picture!© Tim Van de VeldeSave this picture!© Tim Van de VeldeProject gallerySee allShow lessCountryside Villa / MIDE architettiSelected ProjectsGolestan Apartment / Razan ArchitectsSelected Projects Share Area:  101 m² Year Completion year of this architecture project Belgium Save this picture!© Tim Van de Velde+ 31Curated by Fernanda Castro Share “COPY” Projects CopyHouses•Bruges, Belgium ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/887180/poolhouse-o-steven-vandenborre Clipboard ArchDailylast_img read more

Trinity Mirror Group launches icCommunities

first_img Howard Lake | 8 June 2001 | News Trinity Mirror Digital Media Group has launched a free Web publishing service for community groups in the UK: icCommunities allows non-profit groups to build, maintain and update their own Web sites using a simple forms-based Web interface.Trinity Mirror Digital Media Group has launched a free Web publishing service for community groups in the UK: icCommunities allows non-profit groups to build, maintain and update their own Web sites using a simple forms-based Web interface.The service allows charities to publish contact details, events calendars, news pages and other relevant links. Groups are listed under regional subsections, such as icBerkshire, icNorthWales and icTeeside. The site does not yet feature communities in every town. Advertisement AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis About Howard Lake Howard Lake is a digital fundraising entrepreneur. Publisher of UK Fundraising, the world’s first web resource for professional fundraisers, since 1994. Trainer and consultant in digital fundraising. Founder of Fundraising Camp and co-founder of GoodJobs.org.uk. Researching massive growth in giving. Groups signing up get their own domain name, but it is preceded with the “ic” branding. For example, www.icsamaritans.co.uk.Northcliffe Electronic Publishing, another newspaper publishing company, created a similar free online community Web site, the Beehive, in December 1999.Find out more from icCommunities. Trinity Mirror Group launches icCommunities  33 total views,  1 views today AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThislast_img read more

Food company to raise €2 million for charity

first_img Glanbia, the global food group, and its Irish consumer foods business, under the Avonmore brand, has committed to raise €2 million between now and 2011 for Barretstown, the therapeutic recreation camp for children with cancer and other serious illnesses.The cheese and nutritional group, working with Avonmore will leverage support for Barretstown through fundraising and other initiatives. Avonmore is committed to creating increased awareness of Barretstown and will promote the camp on its milk packaging, as well as in its high profile advertising and marketing campaigns —including the popular Weatherline television sponsorship.In recent years Glanbia worked with Our Lady’s Children’s Hospital, Crumlin, where many of the children affected by cancer and other serious illnesses are referred to the Barretstown Camp in Co Kildare.Glanbia human resources director Brian Phelan, announcing that Barretstown will be its designated Irish charity of choice for a three-year period, said that it has been proven that therapeutic recreation helps to rebuild confidence, trust and self esteem for the child and their family.“The association with the Avonmore brand reflects a conscious decision by Glanbia to align its corporate and employee giving programmes with the business strategy,” Mr Phelan said.Barretstown chairperson Danuta Gray said they were delighted to be partnering with Glanbia and the Avonmore brand.“This is a huge boost, not only to our funding effort, but also to raising awareness of the amazing work that is done at Barretstown year round,” she said.www.barretstown.org Food company to raise €2 million for charity AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis Tagged with: corporate Ireland Howard Lake | 25 June 2008 | News  21 total views,  1 views today AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis About Howard Lake Howard Lake is a digital fundraising entrepreneur. Publisher of UK Fundraising, the world’s first web resource for professional fundraisers, since 1994. Trainer and consultant in digital fundraising. Founder of Fundraising Camp and co-founder of GoodJobs.org.uk. Researching massive growth in giving.last_img read more

6 products raising funds for charities

first_img  354 total views,  3 views today AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis6 About Melanie May Melanie May is a journalist and copywriter specialising in writing both for and about the charity and marketing services sectors since 2001. She can be reached via www.thepurplepim.com. From a joke book to water bottle and coffee, here is a range of the products currently raising funds for a range of charities around the UK. Crystal Fighters, RAW Bottles & WaterAidBritish-Basque band Crystal Fighters have collaborated with WaterAid and RAW Bottles to create a limited run of stainless steel reusable water bottles and organic short-sleeved t-shirts, with profits from both going to the charity. On 25 July, Crystal Fighters took their bottles and t-shirts to Wave Rave, a one-day music and culture festival in the coastal town of Bermeo, Spain, with the bottles also available online. Proverbskin & WaterAid100% of the profit from Proverbskin’s refillable natural deodorant is being donated to WaterAid, with a minimum donation of £50,000. Frontline Morning Rescue coffee for RNLIFrontline Coffee is a small batch, roast to order coffee company helping fuel the UK’s public services and donating 100% of profits from its premium coffee to charities that support frontline services and the staff that keep them going. Its Morning Rescue supports RNLI, while its 1948 Bevans Blend supports NHS Charities Together. AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis6 Underdog Coffee Co for ShelterBoxUnderdog Coffee Company is selling its Fairtrade Coffee to Provide Shelter to benefit ShelterBox. 15% of profits from each bag is donated to the charity. The coffee is one of a range the company sells that benefits charity. Melanie May | 26 July 2019 | News Tagged with: fundraising products Holos Kombucha & survivors of human traffickingEvery bottle of Holos Kombucha sold helps it support survivors of human trafficking. The company supports survivors of human trafficking to gain meaningful employment through real-life training, job opportunities and partnerships.  353 total views,  2 views today Charity joke book for CHSS84-year-old Bill Townley from Linlithgow, West Lothian, has put his wit to good use by writing a joke book: ‘You Can’t Beat a Good Laugh’ in aid of Chest Heart & Stroke Scotland (CHSS). Available from a variety of local shops on Linlithgow’s high street, including the post office, it is priced at £7.50, with proceeds going to the charity. 6 products raising funds for charitieslast_img read more

Public order charge brought against blogger and journalist

first_img Follow the news on Myanmar August 1, 2008 – Updated on January 20, 2016 Public order charge brought against blogger and journalist May 26, 2021 Find out more Organisation US journalist held in Yangon prison notorious for torture News MyanmarAsia – Pacific Reporters Without Borders and the Burma Media Association condemn the charge of disturbing public order that have been brought against Zarganar, a well-known comedian and blogger, and Zaw Thet Htwe, a sports journalists. Arrested in early June for criticising the government’s relief efforts after Cyclone Nargis and, in Zarganar’s case, for talking to the BBC, they are facing up to two years in prison under article 505 (b) of the criminal code.“The fact that the first hearing was held behind closed doors bodes ill for the way Zarganar and Zaw Thet Htwe will be tried for helping the victims of the cyclone,” the two organisations said. “We call on the United Nations and its new special rapporteur for Burma, who will soon visit the country, to intercede on their behalf.”The trial of Zarganar and three other activists accused of participating in unofficial cyclone relief operations in the delta area began on 30 June before a special court inside Insein prison. A defense lawyer, Aung Thein, was quoted by Reuters as saying the trial was due to continue on 7 August. Receive email alerts News May 12, 2021 Find out morecenter_img to go further RSF_en May 31, 2021 Find out more RSF asks Germany to let Myanmar journalist Mratt Kyaw Thu apply for asylum News MyanmarAsia – Pacific Thai premier, UN rapporteurs asked to prevent journalists being returned to Myanmar Help by sharing this information Newslast_img read more

Real ID Deadline Pushed Back 1 Year Due to Coronavirus Pandemic

first_img Subscribe Make a comment Community News Real ID Deadline Pushed Back 1 Year Due to Coronavirus Pandemic STAFF REPORTS Published on Thursday, March 26, 2020 | 3:53 pm Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked * Pasadena residents need not rush applying for the new federally mandated RealID, which the California Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV) said can now be obtained by filing an application online.Acting U.S. Homeland Security Secretary Chad Wolf has announced the deadline for obtaining RealID has been extended by one year, or until October 2021.Wolf broke the news on Twitter Thursday.“I have determined that states require a 12-month delay and that the new deadline for REAL ID enforcement is October 1, 2021,” Wolf wrote. “The federal state and local response to the spread of #coronavirus here in the US necessitates a delay in this deadline. Our state and local partners are working tirelessly with the Admin to #flattenthecurve and we want to remove any impediments to response and recovery efforts.”DHS will publish an official notice of the new deadline in the Federal Register in the coming days, Wolf said.On March 9, California DMV Director Steve Gordon said people applying for ReaID could simply go online, fill out the application form and upload the required documents at home. When they go to the DMV office, the applicants will receive an “Express Experience,” Gordon said in an advisory.“No more excuses. No reason for Californians who want a Real ID not to come to an office,” Gordon continued. “No appointment is needed, and now there is an option to bring your confirmation and be treated as if you have an appointment.”As of last month, only about 35 percent of U.S. IDs complied with the REAL ID Act, CNN said in a report. Even before the coronavirus outbreak, Wolf had told lawmakers the prospect of all states being able to issue REAL IDs by October 2020 was “probably fairly small.” 22 recommended0 commentsShareShareTweetSharePin it More Cool Stuff Name (required)  Mail (required) (not be published)  Website  EVENTS & ENTERTAINMENT | FOOD & DRINK | THE ARTS | REAL ESTATE | HOME & GARDEN | WELLNESS | SOCIAL SCENE | GETAWAYS | PARENTS & KIDS HerbeautyBollywood Star Transformations: 10 Year ChallengeHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeauty15 Countries Where Men Have Difficulties Finding A WifeHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyA Mental Health Chatbot Which Helps People With DepressionHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyThe Biggest Signs You Want To Be With Your Girlfriend ForeverHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyCostume That Makes Actresses Beneath Practically UnrecognizableHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyTop Important Things You Never Knew About MicrobladingHerbeautyHerbeauty Business Newscenter_img STAFF REPORT Pasadena’s ‘626 Day’ Aims to Celebrate City, Boost Local Economy Community News Get our daily Pasadena newspaper in your email box. Free.Get all the latest Pasadena news, more than 10 fresh stories daily, 7 days a week at 7 a.m. CITY NEWS SERVICE/STAFF REPORT Pasadena Will Allow Vaccinated People to Go Without Masks in Most Settings Starting on Tuesday faithfernandez More » ShareTweetShare on Google+Pin on PinterestSend with WhatsApp,Donald CommunityPCC- COMMUNITYVirtual Schools PasadenaHomes Solve Community/Gov/Pub SafetyPasadena Public WorksPASADENA EVENTS & ACTIVITIES CALENDARClick here for Movie Showtimes STAFF REPORT First Heatwave Expected Next Week Top of the News Community News Home of the Week: Unique Pasadena Home Located on Madeline Drive, Pasadenalast_img read more

Fundamental Freedoms And The Extent Of Permitted Restrictions: Analyzing Maharashtra Gag Order During Covid-19

first_imgColumnsFundamental Freedoms And The Extent Of Permitted Restrictions: Analyzing Maharashtra Gag Order During Covid-19 Sukanya Singh & Shivek Sahai Endlaw2 Jun 2020 7:17 AMShare This – xOn 23rd May 2020, the Dy. Commissioner of Police, Greater Mumbai (Operations) & Executive Magistrate issued an Order under Section 144 of the Criminal Procedure Code (“CrPC”) to curb the dissemination of fake news which is resulting in the spread of COVID – 19. In view thereof, the Order prohibits the dissemination of information through various messaging and social…Your free access to Live Law has expiredTo read the article, get a premium account.Your Subscription Supports Independent JournalismSubscription starts from ₹ 599+GST (For 6 Months)View PlansPremium account gives you:Unlimited access to Live Law Archives, Weekly/Monthly Digest, Exclusive Notifications, Comments.Reading experience of Ad Free Version, Petition Copies, Judgement/Order Copies.Subscribe NowAlready a subscriber?LoginOn 23rd May 2020, the Dy. Commissioner of Police, Greater Mumbai (Operations) & Executive Magistrate issued an Order under Section 144 of the Criminal Procedure Code (“CrPC”) to curb the dissemination of fake news which is resulting in the spread of COVID – 19. In view thereof, the Order prohibits the dissemination of information through various messaging and social media platforms, like WhatsApp, Facebook, Instagram, found to be (i) incorrect and distorted; (ii) derogatory and discriminatory towards a particular community; (iii) causing panic and confusion among general public or (iv) inciting mistrust towards government functionaries and their actions taken, in order to prevent the spread of the virus. Additionally, the Order makes all group administrators on messaging and social media platforms personally liable for any violation mentioned above. While the object behind this Order may be justified, the wide amplitude of restrictions imposed therein have cast a shadow of doubt on its legality. The temporary restrictions imposed are vague, exceed the object which they seek to achieve, and consequently threaten the right to freedom of speech and expression guaranteed by the Constitution of India under Article 19(1)(a). Vague Prohibitions Restrict Freedom of Speech The phrase ‘distorting facts’ suffers from the vice of vagueness, as its contours are not clearly defined. It is a cardinal principle of law that a penalizing provision should give a person of ordinary intelligence a reasonable opportunity to know what is prohibited, so that she may act accordingly [See Kartar Singh v. State of Punjab (1994) 3 SCC 569]. The Order penalizes the dissemination of information which “distorts facts” without actually defining “information that distorts facts” or “facts”. Without a precise definition, any bona fide contrary opinion on a particular issue, could be viewed as ‘distorting’, without knowledge about what the authority believes to be a ‘fact’. Additionally, the Order offers no guidance to the authorities to decipher the difference between information that ‘distorts a fact’, and information which presents a contrary opinion/interpretation on that fact. This would result in arbitrary enforcement of this restriction, as the meaning of circulated information may differ from person to person. For example, an innocent person forwarding a message/ video about an anti-COVID 19 drug, suggested by one research organization, may be viewed as a distortion by another person who has received and believes the opinion of a different research organization. As a person would continuously be in the grey about whether or not the information she is distributing distort facts, it would lead to a chilling effect on her right to freedom of speech and expression. A similar situation arose in Shreya Singhal v. Union of India (2015) 5 SCC 1, where Section 66A of the Information Technology Act, 2000 was scrutinized due to the vagueness of its prohibitions. While striking down the impugned Section, the Supreme Court held that “Section 66A is cast so widely that virtually any opinion on any subject would be covered by it, as any serious opinion dissenting with the mores of the day would be caught within its net. Such is the reach of the Section and if it is to withstand the test of constitutionality, the chilling effect on free speech would be total.” In our opinion, without a proper mechanism available to check the veracity of facts, or a temporary but precise criterion of what constitutes a ‘fact’ for the purposes of this Order, the restriction unreasonably violates the right to freedom of speech and expression of the citizens of Maharashtra. Right to Fair Comment and Criticism The remaining restrictions are in the nature of pre-censorship orders, which prohibit speech of certain nature and about certain issues till the Order stays in effect. Pre-censorship orders have previously been upheld as constitutional in emergent circumstances [See Babulal Parante v. State of Maharashtra AIR 1961 SC 884]. However, the restrictions imposed under a Section 144 Order to amount to a ‘reasonable restriction’ must qualify the principles of proportionality, and thereafter apply the least intrusive measures (See Anuradha Bhasin v Union of India, W.P (C) NO. 1031/2019, Supreme Court judgment dated 10.01.2020) The restrictions imposed on the Press and individual’s rights to fair comment and criticism are disproportionate to the object stated in the Order. To test the proportionality of an administrative Order, one must analyze if (a) the measure restricting a right has a legitimate goal; (b) the restrictions are a suitable means of furthering this goal; (c) there is not any less restrictive but equally effective alternative; and (d) the measure does not have a disproportionate impact on the right-holder [See Modern Dental College and Research Centre and Ors. vs. State of Madhya Pradesh and Ors. (2016) 7 SCC 353]. If the Order in question is analyzed in terms of the four-part test laid down in the Modern Dental College judgment, it seems to struggle to fit within most requirements. Legitimate Goal: In our opinion, it cannot be denied that an unprecedented global crisis has been created by the outbreak of COVID 19, and the need to curb it is a legitimate objective of the state. Thus, the Order meets this requirement.Suitable/Rational Connection: While misinformation may be an impediment to awareness and may cause panic, containing the spread of COVID – 19 is equally related to protecting those in the field, ensuring social distancing, and having infrastructure and facilities available in sufficient amounts to efficiently handle the cases. In our opinion, the Order prohibits critical and bona fide reporting of government action and inaction, which does more harm than good. Critical reporting and dissemination of information about State Government mismanagement aids the fight against COVID – 19. The Supreme Court and several High Courts in their respective States have taken suo moto cognizance of news items that critically reported about the migrant labour crisis, the ineffectiveness of morgues and hospitals, and unavailability of essential services. Thus, curtailing the right to make a fair comment and criticize the State Government is counterproductive to the object of the Order. Equally Restrictive Alternative: These restrictions seem to be already governed by Sections 153A, 295A and 505 of the Indian Penal Code, 1860. These provisions enable the State to prosecute offenders for hate speech and statements that conduce public mischief. Therefore, in light of the equally restrictive alternative, there was no need for such stringent restrictions to be imposed under a Section 144 Order.Disproportionate Impact: The content of the Order seems to cast broad restrictions on citizen’s freedom of speech and expression. It is important to note that the State cannot prevent open discussion and expression, “however hateful, towards its policies, or criticism towards the incapacity of the government.” [See S. Rangarajan and Ors. vs. P. Jagjevan Ram and Ors. (1989) 2 SCC 574]. The Supreme Court has held that “A successful democracy posits an aware citizenry. Diversity of opinions, views, ideas, and ideologies is essential to enable the citizens to arrive at an informed judgment on all issues touching them” [See Secretary, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Govt. of India and Ors. vs. Cricket Association of Bengal and Ors. (1995) 2 SCC 161)]. As the Order prohibits citizens from making any statement that critiques the government, it also impacts the right of citizens to receive all information, and understand the diversity of opinion. A restriction of this magnitude, to curb the spread of the virus, is disproportionate and attacks the grundnorm of a democracy. Though the object of the Order highlighted many positives and necessary goals, the restrictions imposed on the right to freedom of speech and expression by the Order appear to be disproportionate. Personal Liability of Group Administrators The Order penalizes administrators of messaging groups on social media platforms for actions they cannot be prevent. According to paragraph 5, an administrator of a group is personally liable, if she “allows” any member of the group to disseminate information which is prohibited. However, no social messaging application empowers the administrator to ‘allow’ or prevent another member of the group from sharing what she desires. Therefore, if this direction is enforced, an administrator of a group will be prejudicially & vicariously prosecuted for an act which she has not abetted, nor has the power to prevent. Further, the Order obstructs free dissemination of information by casting an impractical duty on group administrators. According to Paragraph 6 of the Order, administrators are bound to review, scrutinize and report prohibited information to the police distributed by group members. However, the order offers no mechanism or guidelines to administrators to assess an information as fake or ‘distorting facts’. In absence of such a mechanism, this direction could result in hyper – sensitive administrators, who curtail the distribution of all information to avoid prosecution. This would result in an unreasonable restriction on the right to freedom of speech on social media platforms. It is also interesting to note that the Order has cast a positive duty on group administrators to report members violating the provisions of the Order. Such a mandatory direction is not permissible within the scope of Section 144 of the CrPC. Under this Section, the concerned authority can only pass a preventive order. [See Ramanlal Bhogilal Patel v. N.H. Sethna 1971 Cr.L.J, 435]. Applying this principle, by imposing a positive obligation on the administrator, the concerned authority has exceeded the mandate of Section 144. Conclusion Recently, the  High Court of Gujarat made a few observations on the right to comment & criticise the State Government during the COVID – 19 outbreak. The Order has acknowledged that cooperation, understanding, and constructive criticism are powerful tools to fight the pandemic. However, in order to deter politicization of the virus, the Order cautions State citizens that “those who cannot extend their helping hand in this difficult time have no right to criticize”. In our opinion, a statement as broad as the one above is problematic. Deterring political opportunism or destructive criticism is important, but the right to criticize the government is a democratic right of every citizen, whether they are in a position to personally help or not. In the unprecedented circumstances being faced by not just India but the world right now, governments are being tasked with problems in every sphere of administration related to COVID -19. It is understandable in such circumstances that governments would expect support from their citizens in combatting the disease. However, there is a duty on the State of Maharashtra to balance the rights of its citizens while imposing restrictions upon their fundamental freedoms. Free communication, while posing a challenge, serves as an important tool in preserving democracies. It provides constructive criticism which may be used to improve the state of affairs and better-equip the state in dealing with the crisis. From curbing the rights of the citizens to comment on the action of their government to imposing obligations upon Group Administrators to report content, the State appears to have teased the limits of reasonable restriction on its citizens’ right to free speech. The Order has a ring of an authoritarian directive that infringes on people’s constitutional rights and disallows them from voicing their expectations to the very government they elected. Views are personal only (Sukanya Singh is an Advocate practicing in the Supreme Court of India who recently completed her Masters in Law from Cornell University, New York. Shivek Sahai Endlaw is a penultimate year student pursuing his B.A.L.LB (H) from Amity Law School Delhi, GGSIPU) Next Storylast_img read more

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